As described in a recently published paper in Biology Letters, the Philippine Tarsier (Tarsius syrichta) has been found to communicate through extremely high pitched vocalisations in the ultrasound domain, undetectable by human ear. These presumed mute primates baffled primatologists… How can such lack of calls be observed when closely related species are clearly dependent on frequent vocal signals within the group? However the mystery was solved when upon further inspection, these little guys could be heard communicating among the highest frequency levels detected from any terrestrial mammals. It is now thought the extremes of these calls could allow conspecifics to communicate whilst remaining undetected by predators or prey and/or allow individuals to be more easily heard through background noise.
(Ramsier et al. 2012) Primate communication in the pure ultrasound.